Hamilton’s Plastic Problem: The Forgotten Intersections and Reflections

I attended a talk the other night with one of the youth, Denise, that was aimed at addressing the plastics problems in Hamilton, Ont. Delivered by a knowledgeable lady (from an organization that I won’t name), we were provided some interesting information about the statistics of the plastic problem that is plaguing Hamilton (and many other cities across Canada and worldwide). In March 2019, the City of Hamilton officially declared a climate emergency. Concerns regarding the amount of plastics, namely, single-use plastics, that have ended up in the city’s landfills were identified as a large concern. The lady went on to discuss some statistics of “trash” that is accumulated at home that can’t be recycled like large Styrofoam from carefully packaged Tv’s, Styrofoam peanuts from packing, black plastic from take-out containers, energy drinks, and disposable teacups and lids, among other things. She then identified some policies within Canada aimed at banning single-use plastics by 2021 under the Federal Environmental Protection Act. She acknowledged, however, that this ban was something put in place by the federal government, and in order for it to be successful, provincial governments need to also enact their own laws and sanctions. At the local level in Hamilton, a proposal was put forth to explore bi-weekly garbage pick-up (instead of weekly pick-up) and to continue with the normal weekly recycle pickup. She identified a few arguments in support of bi-weekly garbage pickup that claim that, 1) garbage trucks are gas guzzlers and switching to bi-weekly pickup will limit the amount of gasoline used which will also save a lot of money, 2) residents will be more likely to utilize their recycling and green bin during this time to lessen the amount of waste needing to be stored between pickups and also lessening the smell from perhaps organic materials that should be composted, and 3) through residents utilizing their recycling and green bins, in the end, more waste will be diverted away from the landfills.

During the presentation, other ways were discussed on how at a personal level, we can reduce our own use of single-use plastics. There were suggestions for bringing our own bags to the grocery store, using reusable, resealable lunch and snack bags, buying reusable straws, reusable wrap and attempting, where possible, to buy items with less packaging. I heard whispers coming from behind me of some older women claiming that over the past four months, they only collected one garbage bag of “trash”, and that they always brought their reusable bags with them when they shopped. Others talked about their reusable straws and bringing their own bottles or take-out containers when they went to buy food or ate at restaurants.

After the presentation, Denise and I talked about aspects of the presentation that we found interesting. The first thing we both noted was that the presenter, and the majority of the people attending the talk all came from white, middle class backgrounds. We dove deep into a conversation about the “plastics divide”, and how it may be easier (financially speaking) for those who come from more financially stable backgrounds to be able to afford reusable items that aren’t cheap (like silicone lunch and snack bags, beeswax wrap, etc.). We then thought further about the intersections with race, location, socioeconomic background, gender, and politics that are implicated in the plastic problem. What about people from disadvantaged backgrounds who may not be able to afford reusable products? We thought about the single parent, or low-income families who for the sake of convenience, time, and money purchase prepared meals or TV dinners? It seemed that this reflection was missing from the discussion on the plastics problems in Hamilton.

Furthermore, when thinking about “waste” products that make their way into the landfills, there are ways in which gender is unequally called into practice. Feminine hygiene products are one example of how other unnecessary plastics from tampon applicators and materials used to make maxi pads make their way into landfills and into the water. While alternative methods have been created to help address these concerns including silicone “cups”, these products are more expensive, further entangling socioeconomic status and gender in the plastic divide.

All in all, it was an informative presentation and we both acknowledged that at minimum, conversations regarding plastics in the water are starting to be addressed locally within the community. If we had to sum-up the night with one question it would be this: In what ways are socioeconomic status, gender, race, and politics called unequally into the plastics crisis? And, how can these intersections be effectively addressed in any municipal or provincial sanctions or laws that come into effect?

The Water Walk: A reflection

I had the pleasure of attending my first Water Walk on a cold, rainy, windy Saturday morning at the Hamilton Waterfront.[1] Dressed in a long skirt, and bundled with a sweater, a coat and a rain jacket, I met with one of the youth from the camp, Denise (pseudonym) in the early morning. Unsure of what to expect, I contacted a colleague of mine, Stephanie Woodworth[2] a few weeks before the walk. We talked about proper walking protocols, proper dress, what it meant to be in ceremony during the walk, and who could hold the eagle staff and water vessel, among other things. Thankful for our talk, I felt more prepared leading up to the Water Walk.

The beginning of the Water Walk started with an official opening ceremony where we prayed to the Creator and made intentions for the walk. Everyone was welcomed and we were all given space to introduce ourselves and share some of our intentions. It was interesting to see the ways in which people came together to share very similar, yet also very different intentions. Some people sang, some spoke quietly, others cried, and others laughed.

While everyone was introducing themselves, I found myself distracted by the noises coming from the screeching railroad tracks behind us.[3] How could we be surrounded by so much beauty, tranquility and peacefulness from the water, and simultaneously be surrounded by so much noise, pollution and disadvantage? These contrasts carried throughout the walk as we travelled along the water and through Hamilton’s industrial core.

The further we walked, the more these distractions became louder and louder, until they started to just become a part of our walk. The quiet intentions we held at the beginning of the walk became louder in the face of the beeping, honking, roaring of engines, and buzzing of the buildings. I started to think more about the loud, boisterous sounds and the cyclical fading in and fading out of the noises and our voices in unison. What if they were more than just a distraction, and were perhaps a cry from the water that manifested itself through the loud noises, making sure to be heard? A cry that demanded a careful engagement and a noticing that went much deeper than what the water presented to the human eye. A cry that demanded an awakening of people to realize the harm, danger and toxicity that plagued the water’s well-being.

All these distractions made me think about the “blob” situated at the bottom of the Hamilton Harbour – the dark sludge made of toxic coal that was dumped into the water by the surrounding industries that has been out of sight and out of mind to many people living in the area. Maybe people don’t even know about the blob, that it exists beneath the water, or that it is nearly the size of 3 football fields?! (this is another story for a different blog post!)

But, maybe these noises were cries from local waters asking us to pay attention. Our voices then were our collective responses to the water- a fading in and out of quiet personal prayers to loud, outward petitions. The cries from the water guided us during the walk, encouraging us to listen, learn and reflect. It pushed us to become loud and alert when in direct presence of disaster and abuse, but also reminded us to be calm, and reflective in prayer when needed.

While acknowledging that we are all connected as ‘watered bodies’ (Neimanis, 2009), I thought about the parameters of this Water Walk and how it was situated around the body of water where the research and water camp referred to elsewhere in this blog was all conducted. I kept thinking back to our water camps focus on pollution and the flows of water. The RedHill Valley Creek that we explored through camp was one of the main arteries connecting the pollution we saw in the river, with the greater Windermere Basin and Lake Ontario (and beyond). Perhaps having past engagements with this water already meant that there was a sort of familiarity with it, where the water knew to push me further into reflection, and where I knew that I needed to listen and pay attention.

However, water, just like myself, is constantly changing and is always in flow. The water I walked alongside now, is not the same water I walked alongside a few weeks ago, a month ago, or a year ago. The notions of water flows and connections made me feel closer to the people I was walking with, even though we had never met before in the past, further making me think about our entangled journeys with each other, the water, and other human, nonhuman materials both locally and globally. What did it mean to walk for the water, here, in Hamilton Ontario, while simultaneously holding intentions for water in other parts of the globe?

These conversations and engagements with the water only represent a mere fraction of what happened that day at the Water Walk. Having to leave the group early to attend a funeral, I felt saddened that I couldn’t commit more to the water that day. However, I was extremely grateful for the opportunity to learn about and share with other humans and nonhumans our thoughts, concerns, and sentiments about our collective futures on this planet as they relate to water.[4]

In considering the history of colonialism and how it plays out in situations like water walks, please read this blog/reflection (click here) written by Denise. Her reflections and thoughts in relation to Grandmother Josephine and Terry Fox are important to consider and provided a critical lens to engage when thinking about water walks.

[1] I am a white, female settler residing on the stolen lands of the Anishinaabe and Haudenosaunee. I research with young people on the lands of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation. As I embark on this research with water, I aim to better understand my presence as a white settler on these lands and my role in working towards a shared responsibility for the care of this earth.

[2] Stephanie helped to curate water stories and map past Water Walks from 2003-2018 in her Master’s research. You can take a look at Stephanie’s website here: https://stephaniewoodworth7.wixsite.com/website

[3] Please note that the above reflections from the Water Walk are my own and in no way are meant to act as a summary of the ceremony as a whole. The Water Walks are sacred ceremonies where every step is a prayer. Each and every person holds their own intentions, reflections, responsibilities and prayers that are deeply personal. 

Reflection from youth: Denise. Terry Fox? What about Grandmother Josephine?

Terry Fox. Everyone across Canada knows that name, the brave cancer survivor who tried to run across Canada to fund money for cancer research. While it was a great achievement, it pales in comparison to those of Grandmother Josephine Mandamin who walked 23,000 kilometers, more than 4 times as much as Terry’s 5,373 kilometers. Except I’m not sure you’ve heard much about Grandmother Josephine. Grandmother Josephine hails from Manitoulin Island, Ontario and since 2003 she created a movement of “Water Walks” to raise awareness for the pollution and misuse of our water. Starting her journey at the age of 61 and until she passed away in 2019, she was the founder of  the Mother Earth Water Walkers which fought for Indigenous waters to be protected. This week all around the world, there are Terry Fox runs being held to honour his legacy, and while there are still water walks held around Canada, Josephine isn’t taught about in schools, on billboards, or the subject of numerous songs. But, why not? From a certain perspective, it could be privilege, as some closed-minded people are more likely to show support for a white man than to an indigenous woman. As harsh as it may sound, it is a situation that has arisen several times in my life. Just the other day, I was told that it is mandatory to participate in the Terry Fox run at my school and we should each bring in five dollars to donate… Immediately I thought of how none of my teachers ever mentioned Grandma Josephine and how frankly, I would rather our school learn something new and be educated about Indigenous waters and pollution. Even though cancer is a terrible disease that affects many people most people are aware of Terry’s story and impact. But I’m not sure I could say the same about Grandmother Josephine. I wish I could though, because she deserves more recognition for her work that brought people together to protect Indigenous waters and educated many. But at the end of the day, it is unlikely she will ever have the same status and recognition as Terry Fox. Yet we should all strive to educate ourselves more on Grandmother Josephine and Indigenous activists, whether it be by sharing this blog with someone or a quick google search to learn about more about Josephine, we all could do more, including myself. I hope this has showed you a different perspective and even taught you something new. 🙂

Fishtales: Reflections about multispecies entanglements with Fish

Throughout the summer, I often travel with my family northwest of where we live to our trailer located a two minute walk from Lake Huron. We spend the majority of our time outside going for walks, sitting at the campfire, at the beach, or looking for various animals at the pond across the street, or in the bushes/forrest surrounding our site. My 3 year old daughter has an agenda each morning: 1. To wake up and be the first one outside; and 2. to check up on the fish, frogs, Turkey Vultures, Blue Jays and her friends “Chip and Dale” the chipmunks. She puts on her wellies and off she walks over to the pond to see the frogs and the fish. Next, she walks a little bit further to the cell phone tower where perched high high up, nearly half a dozen Turkey Vultures sit, stalking their prey. She then returns from the pond and cell tower to join us for breakfast, making sure to leave peanuts for the Blue Jays, and Cheerios for the chipmunks.

On this particular day, it was quite cool and overcast so we decided to ditch the beach and go for a stroll down to the pier. We sat among a young couple having breakfast, wrapped tightly in a warm blanket, and 3 fisher(people). While sitting at the pier, we noticed two fish turned upside down in the water, floating, dead. Why were these fish dead? Perhaps they were poisoned by toxic waste and pollution? Or perhaps they starved as a result of their habitats being taken over by various other humans/nonhuman effects.

“Look, he caught a small perch!” shouted one man. Excited, my daughter wanted to go over and see. The man struggled to take the lure out of the fish’s mouth. There was blood dripping down his fingers. My daughter looked up to me when the man tossed it back into the lake and asked if the man would catch the same fish again. The man chimed in replying “Not likely”, with a smile on his face. He laughed and then continued to say, “That fish will most likely be a seagulls lunch”. Not knowing what to say to my daughter at the moment about the harsh reality of leisurely fishing, we went to sit back down and stare at the water. It was there that I began to think about connections to fish, and what it meant to fish for recreation. I had never given much thought to fishing as a leisure sport before- I used to occasionally go with my brothers and my grandpa when we would go to our cottage in Georgian Bay. Catch and release, whats the issue? The fish go back to the water and everything is fine. Or so I thought. Perhaps the fish that I had seen just minutes prior to this one had also been the result of the catch and release technique. How could I have been so silly when I was younger to not realize that oftentimes, fish are harmed and/or die because of this? The thought that we sacrifice fish at the cost of our pleasure was unsettling.

Killing fish for the purpose of human consumption (eating) or healing (like when using fish skin to wrap wounds) is another situation that also brings with it some provocations. A lot of cultures around the world (including Indigenous* and non-Indigenous groups in Canada) depend on hunting and fishing as their main source of food. Fish can be regarded as sacred and as a key component of survival in these communities. In considering human/nonhuman matter, the intra-action between fish and humans in some cultures can be very highly regarded and kin-centric focused. Fish here are not seen as a resource for the sole purpose of human extraction but are seen in relation to their integral part of human identity and culture.

On the other hand, people are also concerned about the killing of fish (and other animals for that matter) for the sole purpose of human gain or consumption. Concerns regarding the raising of animals for consumption purposes, the extraction of land and abuse of land to make space for breeding animals for consumption, and also the ways in which animals are “taken care of” (both in the way that they are raised, and also how they exit this world), are some key concerns (among many others). Overfishing in certain areas is a problem. With invasive species in the water ways (phragmites for example), and toxins entering the water, it is making it more challenging for fisheries to re-populate certain pools of water, and even when populated, the ecosystems are becoming more threatened.

In other areas, the extraction of fish is welcomed as certain fish populations are actually seen as problematic. For example, at the Hamilton Harbour, carp (bottom-feeding fish) are problematic as they affect the livelihoods of particular habitats/ecologies. Extraction of carp from this area is viewed as one way of helping to control and conserve other species with/in the surrounding waters and land.

To add another layer, how are fish as pets seen? Do they or can they bring or hold status like the koi fish in Japan, or are they another companion specie for humans? Is it okay to own a certain type of fish, like a goldfish? How are we mutually entangled with fish-pets?

As I continue to think with these questions, and continue to visit the fish at the pond with my daughter, I am forced to think with Zoe Todds ideas about tenderness (see her academic and personal blogs via this link: https://fishphilosophy.org/) (Zoe Todd Tenderness Manifesto: https://zoestodd.com/tenderness-manifesto/) Mutually entangled and forever changing, I continue to explore what it means to care and live with/among fish and water in the 21st century…

*I would like to note that I am a white female settler working and thinking on the stolen territories of the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and the Mississaugas of the New Credit First Nation. If you enjoyed reading this and thinking about fish, then you would really enjoy the work of Zoe Todd, Métis scholar- check out her amazing work (and beautiful fish art) here: https://zoestodd.com/about/

Camp Day 5- Water Works and more reflections…

Although today was the last day of camp, we have planned to continue with monthly meet ups as per the youths request. Another successful water week! To thank the youth for researching this week with us, we took them to Wild Water Works to continue thinking with water in a different context. One of the youths mentioned how she thought it was “wasteful “ having all of this water for our leisure. Others questioned where the water came from, how the waves were made in the wave pool, and how much water was being consumed and used in the Waterpark. I too thought about various people within and outside of Canada who do not have access to clean, safe water and what it meant for me as a white, Western female to have the privilege to spend time in an abundance of water for leisure purposes. I have learned in the past about how fountains were said to have been a symbol of wealth and luxury and I wondered too if water parks had the same status.

I remember once during my time in Brazil hearing about a water park on the radio. In excitement I said to a friend that we should go. Perhaps it was just for this one specific water park water, but I was informed that water parks were for the “less advantaged”. it was a place for them to go and cool off in the hot summer heat. I was also told that it was dirty. Were water parks in other places held to the same standards? It seemed crazy to think that these wildly expensive places were meant for the poorer peoples of society. It got me thinking again about the privatization of water and capitalism. Which got me thinking again about who has access, who doesn’t have access, who pays, who benefits? It seems like a never ending circle.

But all in all, through out this camp, there were little glimpses of hope. Whether it would have been from the actions or comments of the youth, or simply from the word “hope” popping up in our discussions with some of the guests who were invited to the farm, notions of hope were present in a few forms

It is from here that we will continue to meet monthly and engage in various conversations- to think more about the future of our water and continue to be hopeful about our shared futures with water on this planet and beyond…

I had an amazing week at camp! Thank you so much to Kelly from Camp and to all of the youth. I love everything about our collaborations and can’t wait to continue this water camp with our new water meet-ups.

…more posts from the youths to come

Camp Day 4- Reflection from Denise (youth, pseudonym) on Indigeneity and Water

For thousands of years, Indigenous communities in Canada have relied on and cherished water. Many Indigenous peoples believe that water is a sacred gift from Mother Earth and have always used it responsibly and resourcefully. They traveled by water, drank water, and gathered food from nearby lakes, rivers, and oceans. For them, water was a way of life, but today, they aren’t able to do the same. After colonization, the government took over the land and water along with it. Europeans brought the industrial revolution to Canada, but in doing so harmed much Indigenous land and water. For example, the dish with one spoon treaty between the Mississaugas, Annishinaabe, Haudenosaunee, and settlers aims to protect and share the land, but with industrialization, it is clear that those promises have not been kept. A key example is the Hamilton Harbour, which previously belonged to the nearby Indigenous communities, but is now polluted and is unsafe for drinking, swimming, and the  wildlife. Had this treaty not been violated, the harbour could’ve been used to provide a space for traditions, and clean drinking water for nearby Indigenous communities. It may come as a shock to some, but Indigenous reserves as close to a 35 minute drive from Hamilton don’t have drinking water. On Six Nations reserve, the community invested 40 million dollars in a water treatment facility, but only 9 percent of it’s residents receive water from that facility. The other 12000 resident have been under a long term water boil advisory. Though the answer for this has never been clear, some blame the government’s ignorance on racism. Some people living off the reserve don’t want the government to build the infrastructure for people who aren’t taxpayers, but clean drinking water or not, Indigenous communities still honour their ancient traditions, even those surrounding water. An example of this could be Hamilton’s annual soaring spirit festival which is held by the Hamilton Harbour. As unfortunately ironic as it is, the participants take great pride in sharing their culture, regardless of what has been done to their land. The festival is open to all, Indigenous, ally, or other. They share their traditional songs, dances, and art all by the view of the pristine, polluted, Harbour. If there’s the ability to move on  like that, shouldn’t we be able to make amends and give back we took from them?I strongly believe that if we built an entire nation by disregarding their well-being, they deserve much more than what they currently have, and this is not an isolated opinion. Many Indigenous activists have fought for the protection of their waters, such as Autumn Peltier, who spoke at an UN conference on World Water Day. She says: “Our water deserves to be treated as human with human rights. We need to acknowledge our waters with personhood so we can protect our waters.” In conclusion, colonization has harmed many aspects of Indigenous people’s lives, including their connection and views of water, and we should all work together to continue our progress in honouring their culture and bettering their lives in every way we can. 

A photo Denise took while on her travels this week in Ottawa.

Camp Day #3- Reflecting at the Redhill about “flows” of water…

I sit at the edge of the creek quietly, thinking about the flows of water. Where did this water come from? And where will it go? Who and what has come into contact with this water?

I am frequently pulled away from my thoughts and thinking with the water as cars and trucks go whizzing by on the nearby highway. I wonder how one can simultaneously be held captivated by the water, by its calming sounds and relaxing rhythms, while at the same time be held in angst from roaring highway noises in the background. If water is supposed to be calming, peaceful, and quiet, the water here is anything but…

But if you focus hard enough, and really pay attention to the water, then everything else in the background slowly fades. I watch the water as it flows downstream, bringing with it any debris, branches or leaves that fall into it. I watch as bubbles form as the water hurries over a rock, travels downstream, and then disappear.

If water could speak, I’m sure it would have a hundred tales. How is it that the water that we have today is still the same water from over thousands of years ago? Or is it? Who else, or what else has come into contact with this water?

I stop for a second to focus in on a small yellow leaf that was gently resting at the waters edge. Where did this leaf come from? Has it fallen from a tree close by, or has it made its way from a tree miles and miles up the creek? Where will this leaf go? Perhaps it will be eaten by a fish, or perhaps it will be taken in by the river or the lake, being forgotten as it disappears to the bottom of the lake. Will someone along the shores in Burlington see it? What about Toronto? Ottawa? Much like this leaf, I wonder then and continue to wonder about the flows of water…and also about the flows of pollution (but I’ll leave that for another post…)and instead just sit here, continuing to watch the water.

The Yellow Leaf…

Day #2- Thinking about Water and our Clothes

Today at camp, the youth and I were lucky enough to have Sapphire from RevWear come and talk about the use of water and sustainable practices in relation to the fashion industry. We engaged in conversation that situated around one central question: where do our clothes come from? This conversation brought us all around the world, starting in some Eastern Asian, South American and other North American locations where farmers cultivated cotton. From cultivating and preparing materials, these items then travelled miles across the ocean (water) via large sea containers, perhaps making their way to another country to have additional pieces added. Once complete, these pieces would make their way into stores in North American for our consumption. We began to question how then could a shirt be sold for $10? While it may seem like a win for us that the price is so cheap, the reality we learned that was it was at a cost to someone else. From $10, how could the farmers ethically cultivate the cotton that was then shipped in a large container on a ship where crew members and the captain had to be paid. From there, perhaps other individuals had to sew on zippers, or buttons, who also had to be paid. Then finally, they would make their trip to North America to end up on display in a store that has to pay for the t-shirt itself, and also for all of it’s employees. Who looses in these situations when we gain?

We also explored the use of water in the fashion industry as it related to making and washing clothes. Did you know that to make 1 conventional cotton T-shirt, nearly 2,000 litres of water are used? We also learned how the use of synthetic materials in our clothing has a negative impact on the environment as usually when these materials are washed, thousands of micro-plastics and other toxic particles make their way into the water, further polluting the rivers and the lakes.

In the end, Sapphire taught us how to “upcycle” our clothes. Below are some pictures from the day and some of the amazing pieces that the youth created via upcycling.

Reflection from Youth (Denise)- The Redhill Valley

The Red Hill Valley parkway was opened in 2007 and cost approximately 245 million dollars. The construction took the space of indigenous communities, the relocation of animals, and rerouting of the Red Hill creek, which is the habitat to hundreds of native species. The construction brought criticism from indigenous peoples, environmental activists, and local residents who had to be displaced. Even the federal government withdrew the project’s funding, in which the Hamilton government reacted by launching a 75 million dollar lawsuit against the federal government. The federal government eventually gave Hamilton the adequate funding and we now have what we know as the Red Hill Valley parkway. However, a simple hike along the valley’s trails shows just how much of an impact the parkway had on the ecosystem. When we took a hike on Monday, the loudest sound was that of the passing cars and large transport trucks. Not only does this affect our serene interaction with nature, but it can also have negative effects on wildlife. According to the Australian Academy of Science, noise pollution changes how animals hunt, hear nearby predators, and where they choose to live, but as our focus is on water, I was interested in the effect on the creek. In the creek there are many sources of pollution, such as plastics, litter, and the invisible runoff of highway accidents. For example, if a car on the Red Hill parkway crashes and leaks oil or fuel, it will end up in the water, ingested by the wildlife and affecting their health. The rerouting of the creek also affects the wildlife and us. As our camp counselor Kelly pointed out, using concrete on the highway, in the nearby industrial areas, and the trail’s path creates more runoff which can lead to flash floods. Since the concrete doesn’t absorb water, it flows to the creek, which often floods in the spring. Finally, the rerouting of the creek moved the animals along with it. Water is life. All animals need water to survive, but when the creek was moved it made finding food for the animals more dangerous as the Creek was too close to the roads and close to too much human activity. In conclusion, they took a natural ecosystem to better our roads, economy, and infrastructure at the price of the well-being of our “flora and fauna” as well as our residents.

Camp 2019, Day 1- “What is Water?”

Ashley Do Nascimento, Denise (pseudonym, female youth)

Day 1 back at the farm! It felt great to return back and see some familiar faces. Eager to plan out the week, the group of us sat around and brainstormed some ideas. We tossed around some questions and pieces to think with, keeping in mind what we had already explored last year. We welcomed two new individuals to the group this year who also posed some interesting questions relating to water and its current place in 21st century climate change. Our provocations are offered below:

-Does water stop? Does it have a beginning or an ending point?
-Who has access? Who is denied access?
-Who profits? Who controls water and access to water?
-How can we better understand a) Indigenous ways of knowing about water, and b) how can we use Indigenous perspectives and understandings of water to engage better with water?
-How is the use of water affected by Industrialization?
-What does the treatment of water look like?

We explored some of these questions as we hiked alongside the Redhill Valley Creek. Upon our return to the farm, we watched a documentary called “Poisoned Water” about the Flint Michigan Water Crisis… more to come about that later!